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A STUDY OF MULK RAJ ANAND’S CONCEIVING OF BAKHA’S IDENTITY IN THE NOVEL UNTOUCHABLE
Published On: 11/05/2022
Avishek MistryAvishek Mistry,Assistant Professor Department of English,Sagar Mahavidyala



The aim of this paper is to explore the thoughts and actions of Bakha, the protagonist in Mulk Raj Anand’s Untouchable, to understand how the novelist has conceived his identity. The novelist imagines the sufferings of the untouchables and the members of the lowest strata of the caste bound Hindu Society. The caste based exploitation made the life of the outcastes’ unbearable. The novelist presents the happenings of a single day in the life of the Bakha. Bakha’s character has been interpreted in many ways. Mostly he is seen as Anand’s idealised hero. This paper will attempt to understand to what extent Anand has idealised Bakha. This paper will try to respond to the question of authentic articulation of dalit experiences and dalit consciousness by non-Dalit writers and whether there is any trace of Dalit consciousnees in Anand’s Bakha. The paper will critically study Bakha’s imitation of the Englishmen and his eventual rejection of Colonel Hutchinson’s effort of religious conversion. Bakha’s attempt to catch a glimpse of the gods in the Hindu temple will also be analysed to understand how Anand has tried to project him.


READING THE REPRESENTATION OF CLASS DIVISION IN BONG JOON-HO’S PARASITE
Published On: 09/05/2022
Sourav SahaSourav Saha,PhD Research Scholar,Dr B R Ambedkar National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar



This paper analyses how Bong Joon-ho, through his 2019 Academy award-winning film ‘Parasite’, critiques the inequal class structures existing within the modern society, urban poverty and capitalism as a whole. Through the film, he poses a vital question to the viewers of the film that in the late-capitalist society, who really are the parasites? One of the modes through which Bong Joon-ho critiques the inequal class structure is through his clever use of architecture and set design in the film. Also, the two ways to find out as to who really are the parasites are to borrow Jim McGuigan’s concept of ‘Cool Capitalism’, and Antonio Gramsci’s concept of ‘Cultural Hegemony’. Both of these concepts could be used as a tool to read and find out as to how Bong Joon-ho critiques the inequal class division and the class structure. Also, the film doesn’t necessarily critique the characters belonging to different class, but rather Bong Joon-ho criticizes the structures themselves, as well as illustrating the various complexities of solving this inequal class structure.


WOMEN’S SELF-AGENCY THROUGH THE METAPHOR OF SYMBOLIC OBJECTS IN SELECTED FILMS OF SATYAJIT RAY
Published On: 09/05/2022
Ivana ChowdhuryIvana Chowdhury,PhD Research Scholar,Raiganj University



Satyajit Ray (‘true to his time’),the great creator- the aficionado of Indian literature, perfectly captured in his writings the 20th century ‘public panorama’ and people bounded by the social hierarchical dispositions by focusing more on the interplay of several characters, than the words they spoke. Satyajit Ray portrayed and emphasized more on human and domestic factors representing neorealism by stressing upon the structure of the behavioral characteristics prominently in his writings between 1960 and 1985.Therefore specially the female characters of Ray are very interesting as the writer Ray himself was a synthesis of EAST and WEST, Tradition and Modernity and the amalgamation of INDIAN and WESTERN. Ray simultaneously tapped and displayed his closeness and fondness of natural affinity towards the middle-class as well as Subaltern Colloquialism and the postcolonial approach. Ray symbolises the objects in a subjective way to justify the ways of inner self reflective approach to the outer world via mirrors and lots of dream sequences in his writings. And this paper also provides a postcolonial document by retracing Indianness in Bengali literature as well. His writings specially the Calcutta Trilogy : (1) Pratidwandi (The Adversary) (1970), (2) Seemabaddha (Company Limited) (1971), (3) Jana Aranya (The Middleman) (1976) has an immense reference to the mirror reflective structures and dream sequences that are enclosed with the inner conflict of the ‘self’ and ‘other’, specially the identity crisis of the female characters . So, therefore the Calcutta Trilogy leads the lexicon of the female psyche as a ‘weapon’ to demonstrate by showing how patriarchal thinking dominates and perpetuates by implementing discourses and denies the gender meritocracy. The paper submits how the desires of Satyajit Ray’s writings were eschewed by the social and political vices that control over our film watching experience too.


DEVELOPING KNOWLEDGE OF ENGLISH PREPOSITION THROUGH EXPLICIT TEACHING: A STUDY WITH L2 LEARNERS
Published On: 09/05/2022
Tapalina SahaTapalina Saha,Assistant English Teacher,Adamas World School



Language acquisition is one of the fascinating aspects of human development and grammar plays a vital role in speaking or forming any sentence in a particular language. And when it comes to English grammar, the use of correct preposition is of high importance as it makes a sentence proper, comprehensible and sensible. Prepositions in English are usually defined as a word that connects a noun with other words and shows relationship between them. The superfluous use of preposition may spoil the meaning of the sentence; so, one must know the proper use of it to enhance their usage of the language. Therefore, keeping the noteworthiness of it, my analysis will experiment with the subjects and reach to a proper analysis. My study work will focus on the assumption that the knowledge of prepositions develops better in a student of fifth standard through explicit teaching as they are L2 learners and that English is a language that they learn. Also, my experiment will center around two hypotheses, which mutually opposes each other, and by analyzing the results of it, I will reach to a definite conclusion. As a researcher, I will be choosing a group of students reading in fifth standard from Narayana School, Sodepur. I have structured my course into three classes, which is a part of the research methodology. Also, I have chosen twenty prepositions to be taught in two days; the selection of words are solely based on common and frequent usage in the most used and trusted book of any English Medium School –‘High School English Grammar and Composition’ by Wren and Martin. The prepositions are as follows- 1) behind 2) on 3) for 4) with 5) against 6) until 7) across 8) after 9) at 10) of 11) under 12) through 13) among 14) upon 15)about 16) to 17) by 18) above 19) from 20) in.


WRITING THE “OTHER” INTO THE SPACE OF LITERATURE: PAUL AUSTER’S GHOSTS AND THE ETHICAL FINITUDES OF THE LITERARY ENCOUNTER
Published On: 09/05/2022
Swayamdipta DasSwayamdipta Das,State Aided College Teacher, Department of English,Narasinha Dutta College



The article would attempt to read Paul Auster's Ghosts as a text that problematizes the ethics of “literary representation” and gestures towards the differential alterity of the radical “other” (the subject of literary representation) that eludes the “light” and the intentional contours of the writing “self”. Levinasian ethical subjectivity evinces a gesture of un-doing the “intentional consciousness” and all its machinations for reducing the otherness of the other into the contours of the sameness of the reading/writing “cogitative self”. In Paul Auster’s Ghosts, Blue, a private “eye/I”, is hired by White to investigate a man called Black and to send weekly reports of his life and activities based on his observations. Here, the private eye becomes a representative of the writing “self” who is put to the task of representing the differential space of the “other” (Black) within the totalizing space of the logocentric “self” and the hermeneutic order of light and visibility. While the earlier part of the The New York Trilogy, City of Glass, hinted at the substitution of the detective “eye/I” with the authorial figure, Ghosts extends the thematic metaphor and delves deeper into the ethicality of writing as detection and the differential realm of the radical “other” that evinces an impossible ethical gesture towards it. The article would subsequently take up Maurice Blanchot’s ideas (in The Space of Literature) on the ethical realm of “il y a” (the “things” and existents prior to their negation and interpellation within logos and the hermeneutic order) and its relation to the gaze of Orpheus which Blanchot envisions as the intentional space of the literary gaze itself. The article would thus attempt to understand how Auster’s Ghosts evokes the space of the “literary” as an ethical movement of infinite negation unto itself, an undoing of all that it inscribes, and in Samuel Beckett’s words, a “literature of the unword”, an “aesthetics of failure” or a “silence without possibility”


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